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Re: If this board were any good at all, nyuug's forced moniker would be GYOPOdamn daddy  06/18/18
Re: I said maybeeeee, Trump will be the one who saves meeeeeFucks Aplenty  06/18/18
Re: every night I have a single dark chocolate square and a glass of milkTinder Pichai  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975dirte  06/18/18
Re: every night I have a single dark chocolate square and a glass of milkmr. craig\'s \"list\"  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975dirte  06/18/18
Re: If this board were any good at all, nyuug's forced moniker would be GYOPO\"\"\"\"\'\'\'\'\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: So letting Stephen Miller dictate policy was a bad idea? Go figure.Benevolent Screed  06/18/18
Re: Lol at co poasters that have 40-50+ years left calling themselves old\"\"\"\"\'\'\'\'\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: If this board were any good at all, nyuug's forced moniker would be GYOPOnyuug  06/18/18
Re: Chris Pratt gives pro Christian acceptance speech at MTV awardsMarty McFly\'s Japanese truck  06/18/18
Re: Trumpmos: explain how your life has improved since Nov. 2016Nicholas Van Orton  06/18/18
Re: Lol at co poasters that have 40-50+ years left calling themselves oldmr. craig\'s \"list\"  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975scholarship community account  06/18/18
Re: How old will you be in 2057?BOOM  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: How old will you be in 2057?Upset Jew  06/18/18
Re: Removing a large, crusty booger from nostrilzurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1984;,;...;,;,;,;,\'.,;.;,;.,;;;,.,;  06/18/18
Re: How old will you be in 2057?Drunkard  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975Drinkwater  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: roided up Chad faggot cops taking Freaks&Geeks lunch money shoving em in lockersmidnite diner waitress nodding off  06/18/18
Re: How old will you be in 2057?BOOM  06/18/18
Re: Damn Daddy I'll keep making the smokey bones reservations. Next yr maybe?\"\"\"\"\'\'\'\'\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975zurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)  06/18/18
Re: Removing a large, crusty booger from nostrilUpset Jew  06/18/18
Re: Damn daddy & Boner Police? spitting each other's loaded on each other\"\"\"\"\'\'\'\'\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Trump's "Space Force" proposed uniforms invoke Nazi themes, imagery (WaPost);,;...;,;,;,;,\'.,;.;,;.,;;;,.,;  06/18/18
Re: Trumpmos: explain how your life has improved since Nov. 2016Drinkwater  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1984zurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)  06/18/18
Re: Hillary: is a moral and humanitarian crisisFucks Aplenty  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Charles, what are you benching/squating? Any progress pics?scholarship community account  06/18/18
Re: Letter from the ABA on forced separations of immigrantsMuscadine wine  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Gayest experience you ever had?\"\"\"\"\'\'\'\'\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Removing a large, crusty booger from nostrilFucks Aplenty  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975dirte  06/18/18
Re: There is so much sexual tension between boner police and damn daddy\"\"\"\"\'\'\'\'\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: There is so much sexual tension between boner police and damn daddy...,.......................,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,;..  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: The boner police/damn daddy tit-for-tat is hilarious and sexy\"\"\"\"\'\'\'\'\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Hillary: This is a moral and humanitarian crisisGet Thee to the TRUMPery  06/18/18
Re: Trumpmos: explain how your life has improved since Nov. 2016...,.......................,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,;..  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: There is so much sexual tension between boner police and damn daddyscholarship community account  06/18/18
Re: Letter from the ABA on forced separations of immigrantsMaori woman performing defiant haka  06/18/18
Re: Charles, what are you benching/squating? Any progress pics?:D  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Letter from the ABA on forced separations of immigrants.,.,.;;,;.,..,:,,:,;.,:::,..;.,:,.,..:.,,.:.,:.::,  06/18/18
Re: Letter from the ABA on forced separations of immigrantsMaori woman performing defiant haka  06/18/18
Re: Trump's "Space Force" proposed uniforms invoke Nazi themes, imagery (WaPost)THOT_RAVAGER  06/18/18
Re: If this board were any good at all, nyuug's forced moniker would be GYOPOdamn daddy  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Charles, what are you benching/squating? Any progress pics?CharlesXII  06/18/18
Re: I said maybeeeee, Trump will be the one who saves meeeee...,.......................,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,;..  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: reached into luggage for some thing & carved up finger on shaving razormidnite diner waitress nodding off  06/18/18
Re: Gayest experience you ever had?...,.......................,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,;..  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: How old will you be in 2057?damn daddy  06/18/18
Re: LOL @ this story abt Trump WH struggling to find staff, recruiting at job fairs.,.,.,,,.,,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.  06/18/18
Re: How old will you be in 2057?Upset Jew  06/18/18
Re: Keep talking retards! Nothing you say means shitBOOM  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: new study: voting republican linked to birth defects...,.......................,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,;..  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1984zurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)  06/18/18
Re: Lol at co poasters that have 40-50+ years left calling themselves olddamn daddy  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: I said maybeeeee, Trump will be the one who saves meeeeewho cares  06/18/18
Re: Charles, what are you benching/squating? Any progress pics?Diamond Dallas Chad  06/18/18
Re: Gayest experience you ever had?Upset Jew  06/18/18
Re: According to XO big lawyers are homelessFucks Aplenty  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Lol at co poasters that have 40-50+ years left calling themselves oldBOOM  06/18/18
Re: Letter from the ABA on forced separations of immigrantsand when i started to squeeze the bar brother  06/18/18
Re: "hello my future girlfriend. this is what i sound like." (boner police)damn daddy  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975scholarship community account  06/18/18
Re: this whole board is just elaborate foreplaycommunityfag  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: So letting Stephen Miller dictate policy was a bad idea? Go figure.Maori woman performing defiant haka  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Is it FAKE NEWS that kids are being separated from parents at border?IronMonkey  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975zurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975THOT_RAVAGER  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: damn daddy is a fucking monsterdamn daddy  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975Drinkwater  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975....;;....;;....;..;.;....;....  06/18/18
Re: damn daddy is a fucking monsterboner police?  06/18/18
Re: i dont think its right that libs care more about foreign invaders than americans.,.,.,,,.,,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.  06/18/18
Re: Gayest experience you ever had?extremely online guy  06/18/18
Re: RATE these Croatian broadszurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)  06/18/18
Re: Gayest experience you ever had?damn daddy  06/18/18
Re: Would be great if Trump won & libs got so mad they ousted Matt Lauer in response.,.,.,,,.,,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975dirte  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1984BOOM  06/18/18
Re: Gayest experience you ever had?damn daddy  06/18/18
Re: "met chilmata at WH this morning. not chill at all. very angry! sad!" (@realdonaspritezero  06/18/18
Re: Gayest experience you ever had?midnite diner waitress nodding off  06/18/18
Re: Do you all think boner police will let me suck his dick?damn daddy  06/18/18
Re: So letting Stephen Miller dictate policy was a bad idea? Go figure.boner police?  06/18/18
Re: Tinder is getting annoying with all the political shit (pics):D  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975....;;....;;....;..;.;....;....  06/18/18
Re: So letting Stephen Miller dictate policy was a bad idea? Go figure..,.,.,,,.,,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.  06/18/18
Re: damn daddy is a fucking monsterdamn daddy  06/18/18
Re: So letting Stephen Miller dictate policy was a bad idea? Go figure..,.,.,,,.,,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.nyuug  06/18/18
Re: According to XO big lawyers are homeless....;;....;;....;..;.;....;....  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1975dirte  06/18/18
Re: all of you asians are invaders and you need to leaveTHOT_RAVAGER  06/18/18
Re: Can somebody hook me up with a legal jerb at ICE/DHS?mr. craig\'s \"list\"  06/18/18
Re: Trump: "No chicks with dicks in space, believe me"Let\'s call the boys. Let\'s run a train.  06/18/18
Re: all of you asians are invaders and you need to leave....;;....;;....;..;.;....;....  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: GOP: no-one needs a social safety net... except U.S. steel companiesLT Wilbur J. Mercer, USSF  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Charles, what are you benching/squating? Any progress pics?CharlesXII  06/18/18
Re: WaPo: Deport Republicans and let illegals come into the USMaori woman performing defiant haka  06/18/18
Re: Sorry. Can't throw me in jail. I gots a kid. BOOM. You lose, copper.BOOM  06/18/18
Re: So letting Stephen Miller dictate policy was a bad idea? Go figure..,.,.,,,.,,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-timespaceporn2525  06/18/18
Re: cold nigga truth: bourdain ran his fucking yap about HRC and got-gotLet\'s call the boys. Let\'s run a train.  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.extremely online guy  06/18/18
Re: WaPo: Deport Republicans and let illegals come into the USMuscadine wine  06/18/18
Re: Hey Earle. You hiring?,.,...,..,.,.,:,,:,.,.,:::,.,..,:,.,.:.:.,:.::,.  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.nyuug  06/18/18
Re: WaPo: Deport Republicans and let illegals come into the USDiamond Dallas Chad  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.extremely online guy  06/18/18
Re: i dont think its right that libs care more about foreign invaders than americansnyuug  06/18/18
Re: Tinder is getting annoying with all the political shit (pics)THOT_RAVAGER  06/18/18
Re: Guy who lives in a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY here, taking questions.nyuug  06/18/18
Re: i dont think its right that libs care more about foreign invaders than americansextremely online guy  06/18/18
Re: Gayest experience you ever had?Tinder Pichai  06/18/18
Re: Gayest experience you ever had?boner police?  06/18/18
Re: Would be great if Trump won & libs got so mad they ousted Matt Lauer in response\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  06/18/18
Re: Gayest experience you ever had?Drinkwater  06/18/18
Re: i think in another life i ran off to sea when i was just a boyspaceporn2525  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-timeboner police?  06/18/18
Re: Gayest experience you ever had?Fucks Aplenty  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-timet bone  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1984dirte  06/18/18
Re: RATE these Croatian broadsnyuug  06/18/18
Re: Tinder is getting annoying with all the political shit (pics)typical lib pundit  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-timet bone  06/18/18
Re: SUPERSTAR RAPPER XXXTENTACION ASSASSINATED IN MIAMIPoast Malone  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-time...,.......................,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,;..  06/18/18
Re: Xos Bourdain death prediction threads stuns 4chan. Now they want to poast (linkboner police?  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1984wear sunscreen  06/18/18
Re: Xos Bourdain death prediction threads stuns 4chan. Now they want to poast (linkWhy were clowns?  06/18/18
Re: Fucked an Indian girl AND a 20 year old New Zealand girl. Taking ?s. (NYUUG)nyuug  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1984dirte  06/18/18
Re: GOP: no-one needs a social safety net... except U.S. steel companies...,.......................,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,;..  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-timeboner police?  06/18/18
Re: Xos Bourdain death prediction threads stuns 4chan. Now they want to poast (linkWhy were clowns?  06/18/18
Re: Xos Bourdain death prediction threads stuns 4chan. Now they want to poast (linkWhy were clowns?  06/18/18
Re: What are the chances that Beto unseats Ted for the Texas Senate seat this Nov.?Maori woman performing defiant haka  06/18/18
Re: Tinder is getting annoying with all the political shit (pics)dirte  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1984boner police?  06/18/18
Re: Black (((exchange))) student in Korea punches & kills basketball coach (video)nyuug  06/18/18
Re: Tinder is getting annoying with all the political shit (pics)Tinder Pichai  06/18/18
Re: Fucked an Indian girl AND a 20 year old New Zealand girl. Taking ?s. (NYUUG)wear sunscreen  06/18/18
Re: WaPo: Deport Republicans and let illegals come into the USToro XI  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-timeCassandrathon - 5th Class  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-timeMuscadine wine  06/18/18
Re: Tinder is getting annoying with all the political shit (pics):D  06/18/18
Re: Trump: "No chicks with dicks in space, believe me".,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.  06/18/18
Re: Black (((exchange))) student in Korea punches & kills basketball coach (video)nyuug  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-timeMaori woman performing defiant haka  06/18/18
Re: Black (((exchange))) student in Korea punches & kills basketball coach (video)typical lib pundit  06/18/18
Re: Everytime I go to a dive bar, I throw one's into the urinaldirte  06/18/18
Re: Fucked an Indian girl AND a 20 year old New Zealand girl. Taking ?s. (NYUUG)nyuug  06/18/18
Re: WaPo: Deport Republicans and let illegals come into the USMuscadine wine  06/18/18
Re: Tinder is getting annoying with all the political shit (pics)nyuug  06/18/18
Re: Fucked an Indian girl AND a 20 year old New Zealand girl. Taking ?s. (NYUUG)purveyor of filth  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1984`\'\'\'\'  06/18/18
Re: Black (((exchange))) student in Korea punches & kills basketball coach (video)Tinder Pichai  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-timeSir Incelot  06/18/18
Re: RATE these Croatian broadszurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)  06/18/18
Re: Tinder is getting annoying with all the political shit (pics)Buck \"The Club\" Paulette  06/18/18
Re: The Senate needs to start IMPEACHING these faggot federal "judges",.,..,.,..,.,.,.,..,.,..,..,..,.,,..,.,,.  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-timenyuug  06/18/18
Re: Black (((exchange))) student in Korea punches & kills basketball coach (video)Tinder Pichai  06/18/18
Re: Xos Bourdain death prediction threads stuns 4chan. Now they want to poast (linkTerence McKenna  06/18/18
Re: Black (((exchange))) student in Korea punches & kills basketball coach (video)Tinder Pichai  06/18/18
Re: Charles, what are you benching/squating? Any progress pics?,.,...,..,.,.,:,.:,.,.,:::,...,:,.,.:.:.,:.::,  06/18/18
Re: Everytime I go to a dive bar, I throw one's into the urinalNudeTateDillow  06/18/18
Re: Black (((exchange))) student in Korea punches & kills basketball coach (video)boner police?  06/18/18
Re: Black (((exchange))) student in Korea punches & kills basketball coach (video)extremely online guy  06/18/18
Re: Kim Jong Un: Tell me about the progress you've made on Benzo's fuckhole disasterTerence McKenna  06/18/18
Re: Rach: "Give me your deranged, your unhinged, your mentally ill masses yearning tTerence McKenna  06/18/18
Re: Black (((exchange))) student in Korea punches & kills basketball coach (video)Buck \"The Club\" Paulette  06/18/18
Re: all of you asians are invaders and you need to leavenyuug  06/18/18
Re: What are the chances that Beto unseats Ted for the Texas Senate seat this Nov.?Gitmo Detainee tearing up his HOPE poster  06/18/18
Re: Black (((exchange))) student in Korea punches & kills basketball coach (video)boner police?  06/18/18
Re: Black (((exchange))) student in Korea punches & kills basketball coach (video)Morning In America  06/18/18
Re: Tinder is getting annoying with all the political shit (pics)extremely online guy  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-timeBuck \"The Club\" Paulette  06/18/18
Re: all of you asians are invaders and you need to leaveDrinkwater  06/18/18
Re: It's weird to watch an obvious propaganda campaign deployed in real-timeGet Thee to the TRUMPery  06/18/18
Re: Trump: If Congress gave me money to build a wall, Mex kids would still be in Mex,.,...,..,.,.,:,.:,.,.,:::,...,:,.,.:.:.,:.::,  06/18/18
Re: WaPo: Deport Republicans and let illegals come into the USBuck \"The Club\" Paulette  06/18/18
Re: Tinder is getting annoying with all the political shit (pics)boner police?  06/18/18
Re: Everytime I go to a dive bar, I throw one's into the urinalTinder Pichai  06/18/18
Re: Poasters of all creeds, races, and punctuation coming together to resist 4ChanSir Incelot  06/18/18
Re: Everytime I go to a dive bar, I throw one's into the urinalTinder Pichai  06/18/18
Re: WaPo: Deport Republicans and let illegals come into the USSir Incelot  06/18/18
Re: Black (((exchange))) student in Korea punches & kills basketball coach (video)Buck \"The Club\" Paulette  06/18/18
Re: Poasters of all creeds, races, and punctuation coming together to resist 4Channyuug  06/18/18
Re: Tinder is getting annoying with all the political shit (pics)typical lib pundit  06/18/18
Re: Letter from the ABA on forced separations of immigrants....::::..::..,,....,........,..,,,,,.  06/18/18
Re: Poasters of all creeds, races, and punctuation coming together to resist 4ChanSir Incelot  06/18/18
Re: Everytime I go to a dive bar, I throw one's into the urinalTinder Pichai  06/18/18
Re: WaPo: Deport Republicans and let illegals come into the USnyuug  06/18/18
Re: WaPo: Deport Republicans and let illegals come into the USscholarship community account  06/18/18
Re: Letter from the ABA on forced separations of immigrants,.,...,..,.,.,:,.:,.,.,:::,...,:,.,.:.:.,:.::,  06/18/18
Re: Xos Bourdain death prediction threads stuns 4chan. Now they want to poast (linkSir Incelot  06/18/18
Re: Xos Bourdain death prediction threads stuns 4chan. Now they want to poast (linkSir Incelot  06/18/18
Re: Xos Bourdain death prediction threads stuns 4chan. Now they want to poast (linkSir Incelot  06/18/18
Re: Xos Bourdain death prediction threads stuns 4chan. Now they want to poast (linkSir Incelot  06/18/18
Re: Rate this pic of my mom and me from 1984Drunkard  06/18/18
Re: Sorry. Can't throw me in jail. I gots a kid. BOOM. You lose, copper.midnite diner waitress nodding off  06/18/18
Re: WaPo: Deport Republicans and let illegals come into the USDrakeMallard  06/18/18
Re: Tucker going off on the virtue signaling hypocrisy of elites.boner police?  06/18/18
Re: Fucked an Indian girl AND a 20 year old New Zealand girl. Taking ?s. (NYUUG)nyuug  06/18/18
Re: Why is Gisele trying to ruin Tom Bradys life?:D  06/18/18
Re: WaPo: Deport Republicans and let illegals come into the USDrakeMallard  06/18/18
Re: Everytime I go to a dive bar, I throw one's into the urinalTinder Pichai  06/18/18
Re: Letter from the ABA on forced separations of immigrantsMorning In America  06/18/18
Re: Rach: "Give me your deranged, your unhinged, your mentally ill masses yearning tTinder Pichai  06/18/18
Re: Letter from the ABA on forced separations of immigrantsTinder Pichai  06/18/18
Re: Tucker going off on the virtue signaling hypocrisy of elites..,.,.:..,:,.,..:.,.,:,..:.,:,..:.,.,:.,,..:,  06/18/18
Re: If American economy is BOOMING, why do we need tariffs?nyuug  06/18/18
Re: Xos Bourdain death prediction threads stuns 4chan. Now they want to poast (linkscholarship community account  06/18/18
Re: "I can't stand it. I know you planned it." -ElonFucks Aplenty  06/18/18
Re: Why is Gisele trying to ruin Tom Bradys life?nyuug  06/18/18
Re: What are the chances that Beto unseats Ted for the Texas Senate seat this Nov.?,.,..,.,..,.,.,.,..,.,..,..,..,.,,..,.,,.  06/18/18
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Re: What are the chances that Beto unseats Ted for the Texas Senate seat this Nov.?Dickey Simpkins  06/18/18
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Show Thread
Date: June 18th, 2018 10:42 PM
Author: damn daddy

(gyopo coward; foreigner and exile literally everyone on earth)

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:41 PM
Author: Fucks Aplenty



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:41 PM
Author: Tinder Pichai

enjoy GERD

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:41 PM
Author: dirte

I was cute as fuck

https://imgur.com/a/rmNZ60S

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:41 PM
Author: mr. craig\'s \"list\"

it's my me time

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: June 18th, 2018 10:41 PM
Author: dirte

Lung cancer

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:41 PM
Author: \"\"\"\"\'\'\'\'\'\'\"



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:41 PM
Author: Benevolent Screed

jfc, libs??

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:41 PM
Author: \"\"\"\"\'\'\'\'\'\'\"



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:41 PM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


100% pureblooded korean alpha in korea with a KOREAN PASSPORT here, sup

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: June 18th, 2018 10:41 PM
Author: Marty McFly\'s Japanese truck

This will make some waves just because it he made a couple serious religious points, including expressly Christian concepts.



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: June 18th, 2018 10:41 PM
Author: Nicholas Van Orton

1. I pay less in taxes.

2. I derive personal enjoyment from knowing that the Democratic Party is currently unable to pursue its most destructive ideas.

3. Don’t know if Trump has much to do with it, but crime is down significantly in my neighborhood.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:40 PM
Author: mr. craig\'s \"list\"



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:40 PM
Author: scholarship community account

thats too bad. do you have any more pics of her you can post.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:40 PM
Author: BOOM(Lol)


You’re young! People much older than that right now doing well

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: June 18th, 2018 10:40 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter
Wikipedia Search
EditWatch this pageRead in another language
Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Age is flame

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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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EditWatch this pageRead in another language
Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:38 PM
Author: scholarship community account

dont listen to this charles

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:38 PM
Author: Muscadine wine

I give a load of shit to the poor person who calls me once a year to try to get me to give them money. Fuck these guys.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:38 PM
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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:38 PM
Author: Get Thee to the TRUMPery

https://twitter.com/nowthisnews/status/1008806010939682817

Hillary in 2014? Not so much

https://www.reddit.com/r/The_Donald/comments/8s3vc8/just_because_your_child_gets_across_the_border/

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give concrete facts as to how your situation has improved.



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Wikipedia Search
EditWatch this pageRead in another language
Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter
Wikipedia Search
EditWatch this pageRead in another language
Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: June 18th, 2018 10:37 PM
Author: CharlesXII(CharlesXII)


Well, the injury hasn't gone away.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: June 18th, 2018 10:37 PM
Author: ...,.......................,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,;..

so, where's the wall?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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worked out with clothes on once

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EditWatch this pageRead in another language
Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:36 PM
Author: ...,.......................,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,;..



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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:35 PM
Author: zurich is stained (but it\'s not my fault)(How am I going to compete with that HorseD****?)


Yes I walked in on her fucking multiple times and she would sometimes do the retard moan

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Date: June 18th, 2018 10:35 PM
Author: damn daddy

You planning on shutting the fuck up with your stupid, tired schtick at all tonight or are you just gonna be doing this for a while?

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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defin