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Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporlawman8  05/20/18
Re: ITT: contradictory positions taken by modern liberalsDon Kihote  05/20/18
Re: proles buying and reselling items from walmart online maeking more than lolyers\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: lol @ sessions cucking and not indicting crookedRCP90  05/20/18
Re: ITT: contradictory positions taken by modern liberalsant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/20/18
Re: REMINDER: video of a woman who SURVIVED a Mexican cartel attack:lennie  05/20/18
Re: Is this a perfect 10/10? (pic)Buck \"The Club\" Paulette  05/20/18
Re: keith jackson calling cfb on ABC and sunday night baseball on ESPNspin | rat | fucks  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?....::::..::..,,....,........,..,,,,,.  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporjoseph christ  05/20/18
Re: Now that Bluesmoke is old she thinks it's "weird" for women to date 5+ yrs oldernig voicemail  05/20/18
Re: proles buying and reselling items from walmart online maeking more than lolyersJ Dilla  05/20/18
Re: Summon: xoxo dungeonmasterxoxo dungeonmasTTTer  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Coach McGirk  05/20/18
Re: Do mass shooters really crave attention, or is that flame?Topher Mercer  05/20/18
Re: Can anyone help me track down NYYUG's response to the enclosed questions?\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Summon: xoxo dungeonmaster.,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,..,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,...,,..,,..,,.  05/20/18
Re: Now that Bluesmoke is old she thinks it's "weird" for women to date 5+ yrs olderMeghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/20/18
Re: *lawman8 talking to his future mother in law*bumpin that bone thugs \'til i die  05/20/18
Re: I love when Russian loving Trumpcucks try to talk about America firstJogurt  05/20/18
Re: Texas school had shooting plan, 2 armed police officersDon Kihote  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?\"\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\"\"  05/20/18
Re: "It's like a wine tasting, but with cock," Obeezy explained to the Shark Tank\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: boner police pitching a potato on shark tank.,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,..,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,...,,..,,..,,.  05/20/18
Re: Summon: xoxo dungeonmasterxoxo dungeonmasTTTer  05/20/18
Re: This one time on NYC subway, a black guy got on & said "I am TURNT UP right now"spin | rat | fucks  05/20/18
Re: Now that Bluesmoke is old she thinks it's "weird" for women to date 5+ yrs olderPrestigeWhore  05/20/18
Re: boner police pitching a potato on shark tankboner police?  05/20/18
Re: Can anyone help me track down NYYUG's response to the enclosed questions?Gen. Flynn  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporDrakeMallard  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporDon Kihote  05/20/18
Re: karma police arresting this girl, she can't attack or block, her activated abilixoxo dungeonmasTTTer  05/20/18
Re: boner police pitching a potato on shark tank\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporlawman8  05/20/18
Re: Now that Bluesmoke is old she thinks it's "weird" for women to date 5+ yrs olderpart and parcel  05/20/18
Re: Successful, white patriarchs of stable, nuclear families are usually leftists.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Now that Bluesmoke is old she thinks it's "weird" for women to date 5+ yrs olderpart and parcel  05/20/18
Re: Texas school had shooting plan, 2 armed police officersForever\'s Gonna Start Tonight  05/20/18
Re: The plots of the Metal Gear videogame series are utterly incomprehensibleDrakeMallard  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporlawman8  05/20/18
Re: Summon: xoxo dungeonmaster.,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,..,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,...,,..,,..,,.  05/20/18
Re: ITT: contradictory positions taken by modern liberalsyou thought you was whokebe?  05/20/18
Re: Now that Bluesmoke is old she thinks it's "weird" for women to date 5+ yrs olderboner police?  05/20/18
Re: I've decided to defy fashion rules by wearing button down collar with suit.,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,..,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,...,,..,,..,,.  05/20/18
Re: Texas school had shooting plan, 2 armed police officersPrestigeWhore  05/20/18
Re: The only 4 critical traits for a wife: non-fat, pale skin, smart, non-lib.nyuug  05/20/18
Re: Now that Bluesmoke is old she thinks it's "weird" for women to date 5+ yrs olderMeghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: This one time on NYC subway, a black guy got on & said "I am TURNT UP right now"Forever\'s Gonna Start Tonight  05/20/18
Re: The only 4 critical traits for a wife: non-fat, pale skin, smart, non-lib.boner police?  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporjoseph christ  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Buck \"The Club\" Paulette  05/20/18
Re: ITT: contradictory positions taken by modern liberalsteabaggervance  05/20/18
Re: ITT: contradictory positions taken by modern liberalsnyuug  05/20/18
Re: Now that Bluesmoke is old she thinks it's "weird" for women to date 5+ yrs olderTopher Mercer  05/20/18
Re: boner police pitching a potato on shark tankcommunityfag  05/20/18
Re: Hey Dumb Fuck Trump supporters: Once SNL goes on the air, he's DONE.Mr. Gay  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Buck \"The Club\" Paulette  05/20/18
Re: ITT: contradictory positions taken by modern liberalsanimeboi  05/20/18
Re: The only 4 critical traits for a wife: non-fat, pale skin, smart, non-lib.boner police?  05/20/18
Re: Now that Bluesmoke is old she thinks it's "weird" for women to date 5+ yrs olderpart and parcel  05/20/18
Re: ITT: contradictory positions taken by modern liberalsAnglican rooting for William Wallace  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Coach McGirk  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Meghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: NYUUG: stay out of threads by real human beings or I will ruin all your threads\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Coach McGirk  05/20/18
Re: Successful, white patriarchs of stable, nuclear families are usually leftists.nyuug  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporbiglaw lives matter (retired)  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Meghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?animeboi  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Coach McGirk  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporjoseph christ  05/20/18
Re: Successful, white patriarchs of stable, nuclear families are usually leftists.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: The only 4 critical traits for a wife: non-fat, pale skin, smart, non-lib.spin | rat | fucks  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporbiglaw lives matter (retired)  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?Dai, non fa niente  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?The Man on the Street  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?boner police?  05/20/18
Re: ITT: contradictory positions taken by modern liberalsspin | rat | fucks  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Meghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: Is this a perfect 10/10? (pic)\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Coach McGirk  05/20/18
Re: Successful, white patriarchs of stable, nuclear families are usually leftists.nyuug  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporlawman8  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Coach McGirk  05/20/18
Re: Elizabeth Holmes of Theranos Has Indian Boyfriend Twice Her Age (WSJ)Mr. Gay  05/20/18
Re: Crim shitlaw bros Get ITT - questionsMetal Up Your Ass  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?\"\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\"\"  05/20/18
Re: Is this a perfect 10/10? (pic)Forever\'s Gonna Start Tonight  05/20/18
Re: Successful, white patriarchs of stable, nuclear families are usually leftists.Jogurt  05/20/18
Re: The only 4 critical traits for a wife: non-fat, pale skin, smart, non-lib.Anglican rooting for William Wallace  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?....::::..::..,,....,........,..,,,,,.  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?Meghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: Do mass shooters really crave attention, or is that flame?cowgod  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporjoseph christ  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?Dai, non fa niente  05/20/18
Re: Why is boner police so angry?\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Successful, white patriarchs of stable, nuclear families are usually leftists.Anglican rooting for William Wallace  05/20/18
Re: Why are American police over-the-top aggressive?lennie  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?nyuug  05/20/18
Re: The only 4 critical traits for a wife: non-fat, pale skin, smart, non-lib.Meghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: Why is boner police so angry?boner police?  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporlawman8  05/20/18
Re: Crim shitlaw bros Get ITT - questionsscholarshipalt23  05/20/18
Re: Successful, white patriarchs of stable, nuclear families are usually leftists.boner police?  05/20/18
Re: The only 4 critical traits for a wife: non-fat, pale skin, smart, non-lib.nig voicemail  05/20/18
Re: me, boner police, luis, and wilbur mercer having half-off apps at Chili'sdamn daddy  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Coach McGirk  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?\"\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\"\"  05/20/18
Re: Any midlaw or shitlaw bros here routinely do 2 to 3 day long jury trials?\'\'\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\'\'\'  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/20/18
Re: I've decided to defy fashion rules by wearing button down collar with suit;*(  05/20/18
Re: I've decided to defy fashion rules by wearing button down collar with suitxoxo dungeonmasTTTer  05/20/18
Re: Do mass shooters really crave attention, or is that flame?extremely online guy  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporjoseph christ  05/20/18
Re: Why is boner police so angry?damn daddy  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?nig voicemail  05/20/18
Re: The only 4 critical traits for a wife: non-fat, pale skin, smart, non-lib.Anglican rooting for William Wallace  05/20/18
Re: Do mass shooters really crave attention, or is that flame?cowgod  05/20/18
Re: Wife's personality underwent a major change post marriage & babycold hard truth  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?The Man on the Street  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Coach McGirk  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/20/18
Re: Is this a perfect 10/10? (pic)boner police?  05/20/18
Re: Moving back to my hometown after 6 years of biglawForever\'s Gonna Start Tonight  05/20/18
Re: Strange that libs didn't demand Javits Ctr demolition, like after a school shootbiglaw lives matter (retired)  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Meghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: Is this a perfect 10/10? (pic)dha tux  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?animeboi  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporlawman8  05/20/18
Re: Why is boner police so angry?boner police?  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?....::::..::..,,....,........,..,,,,,.  05/20/18
Re: Crim shitlaw bros Get ITT - questionsMetal Up Your Ass  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?\"\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\"\"  05/20/18
Re: Guy I feuded with in high school just transitioned. Rate zhim.boner police?  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Coach McGirk  05/20/18
Re: Why is boner police so angry?damn daddy  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Jogurt  05/20/18
Re: hilarious to know that if XO ever really went offline damn daddy would suicidedamn daddy  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Meghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/20/18
Re: Guy I feuded with in high school just transitioned. Rate zhim.biglaw associate asking if link is worksafe @ 11pm  05/20/18
Re: Crim shitlaw bros Get ITT - questionsscholarshipalt23  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?nyuug  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?Insane right-wing gun nut  05/20/18
Re: Cops who justify their high pay bc they "risk their lives" are full of itLAPD officer on paid administrative leave  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporbiglaw lives matter (retired)  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/20/18
Re: Texas school had shooting plan, 2 armed police officersTopher Mercer  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Meghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Coach McGirk  05/20/18
Re: What kind of absolute idiot doesnt marry an asian womanmassage_man1989  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?boner police?  05/20/18
Re: What kind of absolute idiot doesnt marry an asian womannyuug  05/20/18
Re: ITT: contradictory positions taken by modern liberals\'\'\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\'\'\'  05/20/18
Re: What kind of absolute idiot doesnt marry an asian womannig voicemail  05/20/18
Re: rate the "Family Matters" introanimeboi  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?Dai, non fa niente  05/20/18
Re: Now that Bluesmoke is old she thinks it's "weird" for women to date 5+ yrs olderMeghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: rate the "Family Matters" introanimeboi  05/20/18
Re: What kind of absolute idiot doesnt marry an asian womanThanks Mario! But our partner is in another castle  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/20/18
Re: Now that Bluesmoke is old she thinks it's "weird" for women to date 5+ yrs olderpart and parcel  05/20/18
Re: hilarious to know that if XO ever really went offline damn daddy would suicidebumpin that bone thugs \'til i die  05/20/18
Re: I've decided to defy fashion rules by wearing button down collar with suit.,.,,..,.,,.,.,:,,:,..,,:::,...,:,.,.:...:.,:.::,.  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?\"\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\"\"  05/20/18
Re: What kind of absolute idiot doesnt marry an asian womannig voicemail  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Anglican rooting for William Wallace  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?boner police?  05/20/18
Re: Texas school had shooting plan, 2 armed police officersnyuug  05/20/18
Re: hilarious to know that if XO ever really went offline damn daddy would suicidedamn daddy  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?boner police?  05/20/18
Re: Texas school had shooting plan, 2 armed police officersGregor  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporlawman8  05/20/18
Re: Is XO more impressed by a charismatic articulate Rhodes Scholar orbumpin that bone thugs \'til i die  05/20/18
Re: Falling in love is 180.,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,..,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,...,,..,,..,,.  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Meghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: Do mass shooters really crave attention, or is that flame?LAPD officer on paid administrative leave  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?The Man on the Street  05/20/18
Re: Shitliberalism only exists because shitlibs feel inferior 2 straight white malesboner police?  05/20/18
Re: Do mass shooters really crave attention, or is that flame?Anglican rooting for William Wallace  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?Dai, non fa niente  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Texas school had shooting plan, 2 armed police officersnyuug  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?cowgod  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Shitliberalism only exists because shitlibs feel inferior 2 straight white malesMeghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Coach McGirk  05/20/18
Re: Wife's personality underwent a major change post marriage & babyxoxo dungeonmasTTTer  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Shitliberalism only exists because shitlibs feel inferior 2 straight white malesMeghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Falling in love is 180ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/20/18
Re: "US" media pulling all-nighter tonite to get story straight & brace for IG reporbiglaw lives matter (retired)  05/20/18
Re: ohtani spits his sunflower seeds in a cup wtfbumpin that bone thugs \'til i die  05/20/18
Re: The only 4 critical traits for a wife: non-fat, pale skin, smart, non-lib.Meghan Markle  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Is XO more impressed by a charismatic articulate Rhodes Scholar or,,,.,,,,;.,.,::;,,;..,,::.,.,,..:,:,.:..:,..:.::,  05/20/18
Re: ohtani spits his sunflower seeds in a cup wtflennie  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Falling in love is 180.,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,..,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,...,,..,,..,,.  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Texas school had shooting plan, 2 armed police officers.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.  05/20/18
Re: Do mass shooters really crave attention, or is that flame?cowgod  05/20/18
Re: The Mexican Lil Wayne is 180LAPD officer on paid administrative leave  05/20/18
Re: Lmao at Ohtani and Angels fansyosemite sam fuming faggot  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Shitliberalism only exists because shitlibs feel inferior 2 straight white malesloans originated on or after July 1, 2018,  05/20/18
Re: Crim shitlaw bros Get ITT - questionsJogurt  05/20/18
Re: Why do minorities gravitate towards WASP built societies?Dai, non fa niente  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Elizabeth Holmes of Theranos Has Indian Boyfriend Twice Her Age (WSJ)joseph christ  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Texas school had shooting plan, 2 armed police officersnyuug  05/20/18
Re: Falling in love is 180ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: Crim shitlaw bros Get ITT - questionsscholarshipalt23  05/20/18
Re: Guy living in a First World country, taking questions ITT.\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/20/18
Re: How damaging is a DUI/DWI on background check for most jobs?Insane right-wing gun nut  05/20/18
Re: Texas school had shooting plan, 2 armed police officersimanxoxoposter  05/20/18
Re: Just finished Breath of the Wild, taking q'sGet Thee to the TRUMPery  05/20/18
Re: is shit liberalism the result of structural forces, historical accident, or ...spritezero  05/20/18
Re: The only 4 critical traits for a wife: non-fat, pale skin, smart, non-lib.Anglican rooting for William Wallace  05/20/18
Re: rate the "Family Matters" introTRUMP rulez  05/20/18
Re: Wife's personality underwent a major change post marriage & babyRCP90  05/20/18
Re: Just finished Breath of the Wild, taking q'slennie  05/20/18
Re: Id be open to universal health care and higher taxes if libs werent so insanenyuug  05/20/18
Re: Falling in love is 180.,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,..,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,...,,..,,..,,.  05/20/18
Re: Lmao at Ohtani and Angels fans.,.,...,..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::..,.,:,.,.:.,:.,:.::,.  05/20/18
Re: Shitliberalism only exists because shitlibs feel inferior 2 straight white malesInsane right-wing gun nut  05/20/18
Re: Some Asian women seem offended to be in my presence (asian man)deus vult  05/20/18
Re: Shitliberalism only exists because shitlibs feel inferior 2 straight white malesextremely online guy  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?....::::..::..,,....,........,..,,,,,.  05/20/18
Re: Just finished Breath of the Wild, taking q'sGet Thee to the TRUMPery  05/20/18
Re: Guy I feuded with in high school just transitioned. Rate zhim.Insane right-wing gun nut  05/20/18
Re: Biglaw brose, at what point on sunday are you more dread than man?[_____Sign Here____]  05/20/18
Re: how sophisticated was ancient Egyptian metallurgyant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/20/18
Re: Some Asian women seem offended to be in my presence (asian man)nyuug  05/20/18
Re: Libs why is race/income inequality social illls, but sexual inequity is nbd?Coach McGirk  05/20/18
Re: Id be open to universal health care and higher taxes if libs werent so insaneRCP90  05/20/18
Re: Some Asian women seem offended to be in my presence (asian man).,.,...,..,.,.,:,,:,...,:::..,.,:,.,.:.,:.,:.::,.  05/20/18
Re: Shitliberalism only exists because shitlibs feel inferior 2 straight white malesnyuug  05/20/18
Re: how sophisticated was ancient Egyptian metallurgybumpin that bone thugs \'til i die  05/20/18
Re: Just finished Breath of the Wild, taking q'sGet Thee to the TRUMPery  05/20/18

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 9:00 PM
Author: lawman8

Sure, but not responsive to my points, particularly the pussy tape analogy.

I hope you now can see why we all want the damn report to be released.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 9:00 PM
Author: Don Kihote

*thread explodes*

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 9:00 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

this can’t be right

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 9:00 PM
Author: RCP90



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:59 PM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

All minorities should benefit from AA.....except azns

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:59 PM
Author: lennie



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:59 PM
Author: Buck \"The Club\" Paulette



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:59 PM
Author: spin | rat | fucks(acp)


now: trannies

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:58 PM
Author: ....::::..::..,,....,........,..,,,,,.

Arranged marriages and a monogamous society, or at least some kind of safety net to that effect

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:58 PM
Author: joseph christ

I think he's always been a jumpy emotional twat. The people who are truly acting like cornered rats to me are these lawfare rats who are spokespeople for Comey, McCabe etc. They have been spazzing out all day.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:58 PM
Author: nig voicemail



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:58 PM
Author: J Dilla

ljl fuck this fraud so called profeshun

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:58 PM
Author: xoxo dungeonmasTTTer

If I shoot a fireball at you, yes, hero.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:58 PM
Author: Coach McGirk

This is a nonsense question. There are lots of shitty counties in the world that are shitty for lots of different reasons. We were talking about African Americans, though (actually we were talking about aspire virgins but I guess we digressed.).

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:58 PM
Author: Topher Mercer(Short Pride World Wide)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QhtIJbeuTsg

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:58 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:57 PM
Author: .,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,..,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,...,,..,,..,,.

Do I get a saving throw

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:57 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)


Uh yeah it is.m Most women want to date and marry men within a few years of their age and ate what they do.

Why does this anger you so much?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:57 PM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

plz respond

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:57 PM
Author: bumpin that bone thugs \'til i die(askav)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:57 PM
Author: Jogurt

And patriotism.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:57 PM
Author: Don Kihote



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:57 PM
Author: \"\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\"\"

liberals like to laugh at the bell curve without really reading it or understanding its arguments. i doubt you even know much about statistics, but you are confident that the book's conclusions are wrong.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:57 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:57 PM
Author: .,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,..,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,...,,..,,..,,.



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:57 PM
Author: xoxo dungeonmasTTTer

Your summon spell has failed.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:57 PM
Author: spin | rat | fucks(acp)


they love how it feels, they feel powerful but they are BITCH ASS NIGGAS WHO WON'T DO SHIT

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:57 PM
Author: PrestigeWhore(0xe5b500f0f5C09Ed723941758fC22eC8e00c9804C)


Doesnt that just make your life outcome even more inexcusable?

You make fun of xoxoers for being aspie but no one other than aspies brags about their lsat, sat and high school in their mid-30s other than aspies

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:56 PM
Author: boner police?



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:56 PM
Author: Gen. Flynn



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:56 PM
Author: DrakeMallard(Daring Duck of Mystery, Champion of Right)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:56 PM
Author: Don Kihote



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:56 PM
Author: xoxo dungeonmasTTTer



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:56 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:56 PM
Author: lawman8

The investigation pertains to whether the FBI/DOJ lied to the FISA court in order to obtain the warrant, which would obviously not be legal.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:55 PM
Author: part and parcel(donny)


That’s not really responsive but that’s ok

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:55 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

oh u never gonna have another thread of your own again

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:55 PM
Author: part and parcel(donny)


Lmao Paulie. Just lol

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:55 PM
Author: Forever\'s Gonna Start Tonight

mmm tasty, i think nyuug prefers the terrier breeds though. meat has more of a rich, marbled consistency to it.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:55 PM
Author: DrakeMallard(Daring Duck of Mystery, Champion of Right)


I've never gotten into them because of it

Trying to read about the latest one and I'm confused right out the gate

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:55 PM
Author: lawman8

I maintain that if it was legal, he wouldn’t be obviously panicking like he is now.

And even if you are right that what they did was inappropriate but legal, so was the pussy tape. Obviously Trump still won in the end, but wouldn’t you agree it hurt him? I want the damn thing to come out ASAP so Trump can pound it over and over through the midterms.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:54 PM
Author: .,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,..,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,...,,..,,..,,.

Please create a game for us ty

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:54 PM
Author: you thought you was whokebe?(they don't love you like that)


Women’s right to choose but killing middle eastern babies is wrong

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:54 PM
Author: boner police?

uncle anoops like PP are the most contemptible people in existence

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:54 PM
Author: .,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,..,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,...,,..,,..,,.



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:53 PM
Author: PrestigeWhore(0xe5b500f0f5C09Ed723941758fC22eC8e00c9804C)


He’s not wrong but literal LOL at gizmodo reference

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:53 PM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


pale skin is very TCR

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:53 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)


Well, you're wrong. The government collects statistics on this. Age differences of 7-10 years are really rare for a married couple.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:53 PM
Author: Forever\'s Gonna Start Tonight

He had this really rough-sounding call with someone (maybe his girlfriend) and then he hung up and started saying "I am TURNT UP right now" over and over while looking at people in a really hostile manner. One guy started at him for slightly too long, so he started loudly calling him a faggot. Everyone tried to ignore him. What in the fuck is wrong with people? If you have a bad conversation with your girlfriend, then don't start picking fights with random people, you fucking moron. You will only end up in jail.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:53 PM
Author: boner police?

reptiles care about white people which is possibly the most noble cause in all of history

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:53 PM
Author: joseph christ

Yeah and officially it was never treated as a serious problem. I think conservatives need to be prepared for the possibility that the IG gives the Obama administration a pass on this, even though on its face it looks bad. Our counterintelligence authorities are broad and the Patriot act lets you do a lot with a FISA warrant

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:53 PM
Author: Buck \"The Club\" Paulette

Explain other black countries then. They're even worse.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:53 PM
Author: teabaggervance

saying we need higher wages and letting in floods of unskilled labor

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:52 PM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


surprisingly credited.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:52 PM
Author: Topher Mercer(Short Pride World Wide)


Paulie?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:52 PM
Author: communityfag



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:52 PM
Author: Mr. Gay



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:52 PM
Author: Buck \"The Club\" Paulette



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:52 PM
Author: animeboi

All of them.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:52 PM
Author: boner police?

what was it like studying engineering in ug

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:52 PM
Author: part and parcel(donny)


I’m just saying you’re wrong. Sorry you can’t defend your position but no need to resort to ad hominems.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: Anglican rooting for William Wallace

Working jobs and villifying the”middle class”

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: Coach McGirk

No

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)


LOL

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: Coach McGirk

Touché.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


oh u mad

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: biglaw lives matter (retired)

lmao holy shit

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)


LOL @ the bell curve

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: animeboi

Pretty sure black underachievment is 90% due to blacks, yes.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: Coach McGirk

Go for it. I’m sure it will catch on. Be the change you want to see in the world, or whatever that quote is.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: joseph christ

Brennan is a moron and not a lawyer.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

Stay out of threads with your spam or I keep ruining every thread you start.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: spin | rat | fucks(acp)


pale skin?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:51 PM
Author: biglaw lives matter (retired)

DOJ1 secretly met bill clinton on a private plane, only got caught by pure accident local reporter saw them

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:50 PM
Author: Dai, non fa niente



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:50 PM
Author: The Man on the Street

de gustibus

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:50 PM
Author: boner police?

they literally look like monkeys

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:50 PM
Author: spin | rat | fucks(acp)


I FUCKING LOVE SCIENCE!

... except when it comes to gender, nuclear power, GMOs ...

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:50 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)


people don't start out on an even playing field when it comes to making money. Paris Hilton isn't rich because she has better skills or more intelligence than anyone.

incels are incels due to their inherent personal failings.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:50 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

(guy breaking character)

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:50 PM
Author: Coach McGirk

What’s your solution?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:49 PM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


ITT: a literal third worlder living under matriarchy pretends he knows anything about patriarchy

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:49 PM
Author: lawman8

I doubt the former head of the CIA would be lashing out like this if what he did was legal:

https://i.redd.it/y278ow8m03z01.png

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:49 PM
Author: Coach McGirk

I agree. But you have a much more easily correctable problem in income disparity, which is half the equation.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:49 PM
Author: Mr. Gay



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:49 PM
Author: Metal Up Your Ass

it went to spam. gonna reply now.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:49 PM
Author: \"\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\"\"

not a lot more. black-white earnings differences can be almost entirely attributed to observable differences in educational attainment/human capital. go read the bell curve.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:49 PM
Author: Forever\'s Gonna Start Tonight

The difference is that the Toyota has a "timeless" look, and the Mercedes you posted has a "trendy" look. It's like the high-and-tight haircut that every young professional bro is wearing these days: Looks great right now, but in ten years it will look outdated as fuck.

Let me give you an example. When the ML320 debuted in 1998, it looked "trendy," and people LOVED it. At the time, it was "trendy" for cars to have a rounded, smoothed, aerodynamic look with very few sharp edges.

So how's the old ML320 look these days? Is it a "classic"? Does it have a "timeless" look? You tell me. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercedes-Benz_M-Class#/media/File:97-01_Mercedes-Benz_ML320.jpg (Answer: It looks like shit.)

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:49 PM
Author: Jogurt



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:49 PM
Author: Anglican rooting for William Wallace

Single women and “married” millennial yes.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:48 PM
Author: ....::::..::..,,....,........,..,,,,,.

The left keeps arguing that society has imposed certain standards of beauty. If that’s the case then that applies to incels too and requires corrective action

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:48 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:48 PM
Author: cowgod(theimmigrant@live.com)


It seems like a feminine sort of mindset that would jump to that conclusion since women love attention of all kinds. One of those things that occurs simultaneously in the minds of Moms and shit, and no man cares to challenge it, so it's just one of those things that everyone assumes to be true, but doesn't know why. Meanwhile, this sort of thinking is counterproductive to solving the actual problem.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:48 PM
Author: joseph christ

What DOJ did may have been highly inappropriate but LEGAL. Don't want to give dems that leg to stand on. Nothing wrong with keeping them on the defensive through November.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:48 PM
Author: Dai, non fa niente

When I’ve heard it used (admittedly only a couple times by older dudes) it’s been in the context of two people not agreeing on something unimportant and realizing it as such. Not one person disparaging the other.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:48 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

ITT a bunch of people falling for obvious flame

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:47 PM
Author: Anglican rooting for William Wallace

...in dc when their wives are in the room

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:47 PM
Author: lennie



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:47 PM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


, he lisped, whilst literally smoking ayahuasca and eating corn derivatives

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:47 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)


most women are libs

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:47 PM
Author: boner police?

No, you.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:47 PM
Author: lawman8

What good will it be if it comes out after the midterms?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:47 PM
Author: scholarshipalt23



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:47 PM
Author: boner police?



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: nig voicemail



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: damn daddy



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: Coach McGirk

Yeah, black underachievement is not related to any mistakes by our society; good point.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: \"\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\"\"

why is income inequality an apparent mistake in society? some people have better skills and more intelligence and so are able to earn more than others. this doesn't seem like a problem that needs to be addressed any more than sexual inequality.

i think a reasonable argument could be made that at least ensuring people don't starve to death is more important than ensuring equal sexual opportunities. the people who advocate for wealth or income distribution want to go further than that though.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: \'\'\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\'\'\'

Area of law doesn’t allow for it.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

again, see above
just start shaming sluts and encourage monogamy

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: ;*(

Jesus, I thought this boart was preftigious -- of course you can wear a button down with a suit.

https://www.ohio.edu/news/pix/BUCKLEY.JPG

Make sure you get that lux collar roll for maximal effect.

See, e.g., http://oxfordclothbuttondown.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Liberty-Bell-Collar-Roll.jpg

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: xoxo dungeonmasTTTer

You will be fine, hero. Drink a Potion of Heroism before your first day.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: extremely online guy

seems like flame

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: joseph christ

Am I the only one who thinks delaying the second report works in Trump's favor? The constant drip of coverups and revelations will be delicious.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: damn daddy

You're literally brimming with rage constantly

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: nig voicemail



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:46 PM
Author: Anglican rooting for William Wallace

No the women are nasty. Maybe in some Mexican communities they’re nice but us born shitlib women are mean as hell.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:45 PM
Author: cowgod(theimmigrant@live.com)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:45 PM
Author: cold hard truth



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:45 PM
Author: The Man on the Street

no, no, no. are you ESL? 'there is no accounting for taste' is an expression that is used to imply disparagement of another's taste in contexts like the above.
it's like if i say 'I like eating ice cream' and you say 'I like eating dog shit', and i raise an eyebrow and say 'well, well... I guess there's no ACCOUNTING FOR TASTE, is there,' the implication is that i am expressing a negative judgment of your taste.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:45 PM
Author: Coach McGirk

Well sure; there’s a soltuion. Are we down for that here?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:45 PM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:44 PM
Author: boner police?



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:44 PM
Author: Forever\'s Gonna Start Tonight

i enjoyed your flame, please poast more

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:44 PM
Author: biglaw lives matter (retired)



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:44 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:44 PM
Author: dha tux( )


what you posted is like a Dominican hooker who smokes cigarettes.

what I posted is a 35yo mom of 4 with big tits and a small waist who still wakes you up with blowjobs three times a week before you head to work.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:44 PM
Author: animeboi

Pretty sure 90% of the inequality libs bleat about are “facto of life” type unfortunate situations.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:43 PM
Author: lawman8

The ringleaders should all be executed.

The footsoldiers are essentially brainwashed zombies. They can be saved once they learn the error of their ways.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:43 PM
Author: boner police?

I don't think I come across as angry. Rude, yes, but never angry.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:43 PM
Author: ....::::..::..,,....,........,..,,,,,.

You realize many cultures have arranged marriages

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:43 PM
Author: Metal Up Your Ass



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:42 PM
Author: \"\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\"\"

social norms that enforce monogamy. transfers to unattractive people so they can hire prostitutes.

i am not advocating for any of this, but clearly there are ways.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:42 PM
Author: boner police?

"We were intellectual rivals"

lol what kind of faggot were u in high school

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:42 PM
Author: Coach McGirk

Because some injustices are the result of apparent mistakes in society and others are closer to a “facto of life” type unfortunate situation.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:42 PM
Author: damn daddy

virgin

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:42 PM
Author: Jogurt

Nobody cares about incel Trumptards.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:42 PM
Author: damn daddy



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:42 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)


duh

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:42 PM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

it's better for literally everyone
women were measurably a lot happier
inb4 "oh they just didn't KNOW how truly unhappy they were!!11!1" lmao

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: biglaw associate asking if link is worksafe @ 11pm(LM95)


Looks like tranny John Stamos

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: scholarshipalt23

Do you usually take the deal

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


ITT: what social and political discourse in the third world looks and sounds like

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: Insane right-wing gun nut

Whitey didn’t join their society retard

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: LAPD officer on paid administrative leave

Chicago police are some of the highest paid cops in the nation and the crime rate there is the highest in the nation. Clearly high pay don't work.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: biglaw lives matter (retired)

all libs belong in jail

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

see above
it's a cultural problem, not one the state should attempt to solve

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: Topher Mercer(Short Pride World Wide)


*While the rest of the world is investing in deep learning, artificial intelligence, automation, and machine learning*'

lol is this what they are saying on the gizmodo articles you read



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)


why? To benefit incels? no thanks

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: Coach McGirk

There’s a lot more wrapped up in black underachievement then IQ. But more to the point, what’s the solution here. Are you going to force people to fuck?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: massage_man1989

flat butts

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: boner police?

Give it enough time and libs will embrace incels.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


(guy posting on forum of literal 5'6" white nerds)

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: \'\'\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\'\'\'

Worship tech CEOs as saviors while vilifying the one percenters

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:41 PM
Author: nig voicemail

I’m a 6’2” beef blimp and you s have to be a fucking moron not to marry an asian woman

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:40 PM
Author: animeboi

I never had a middle class black family either :(

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:40 PM
Author: Dai, non fa niente

Dude “no accounting for taste” is a saying that doesn’t necessarily mean one thing is worse than the other. How is my interpreting the phrase like that dispositive on my IQ? I guess I should post more and learn to recognize the guys who like to troll for wasps

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:40 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)


LOL @ your old ass shooting the messenger just because I said young girls don't want you.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:40 PM
Author: animeboi

120 Where's Urkel?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:40 PM
Author: Thanks Mario! But our partner is in another castle

(5'6" white nerd)

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:39 PM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

sluts should be shamed more. A LOT more.
I'm not advocating sexual slavery or anything like that. But culture should be much more like the early 20th century.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:39 PM
Author: part and parcel(donny)


I forgot i made this thread. Lol @ defensive blue smoke and her “white” knight paulie porsche got itt

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:39 PM
Author: bumpin that bone thugs \'til i die(askav)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:39 PM
Author: .,.,,..,.,,.,.,:,,:,..,,:::,...,:,.,.:...:.,:.::,.

I'm actually worried about it. Only other option is wearing a shirt with white cloth cufflinks that i'd have to do a load of laundry for by itself now and iron in the morning.

Bleh. It's not oxford cloth its a regular plain white shirt. It'll be fine I hope.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:39 PM
Author: \"\'\"\'\"\'\'\"\"\"

this doesn't answer the question in the OP. why should some be corrected and others not?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:39 PM
Author: nig voicemail



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:39 PM
Author: Anglican rooting for William Wallace

Dude come on. We’re gonna get taxed more cause of people like you. Taxation is theft.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:39 PM
Author: boner police?



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:39 PM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


its great living in a country without violent crime

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:39 PM
Author: damn daddy



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:39 PM
Author: boner police?



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:38 PM
Author: Gregor

*Eats spaniel without fear of violence*

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:38 PM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

and black IQ is measurably lower across the board, but you don't see libs saying "well, it's just a fact of life, guess we just need to let things be the way they are"

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:38 PM
Author: lawman8

Different report. The one that should be released soon has to deal with the mishandling of the Hillary investigation.

The FISA abuses that occurred at Obama’s direction, along with the implanting of a spy in Trump’s campaign, are the subject of another OIG report that won’t come out for months.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:38 PM
Author: bumpin that bone thugs \'til i die(askav)


latter by far

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:38 PM
Author: .,.,.,.,.,.,,,,.,..,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,...,,..,,..,,.

He was actually 10” taller than me. Sounds like a chad tbh but she wasn’t attracted to him and kept trying to escape his apartment. But she was overpowered. I actually have a cuck fetish and tried to coax it out of her that she enjoyed it but she really didn’t. So it goes!

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:38 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)


CR

it's like bitching about "looks equality" or "height equality." WTF can be done if no one wants to fuck someone?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:38 PM
Author: LAPD officer on paid administrative leave

they want revenge

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:38 PM
Author: The Man on the Street

goddamn, you are fucking stupid. you need to kill yourself.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:38 PM
Author: boner police?

Yes it's quite disgusting. Only reinforces how pathetic women and minorities are.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:37 PM
Author: Anglican rooting for William Wallace

I always got the impression they were lashing out in rage but I’m not a psych PhD working for cnn. I dunno why anyone would gaf about attention at that point especially not that kind (all negative).

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:37 PM
Author: Dai, non fa niente

I think we interpreted “there’s no accounting for taste” differently.

https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/there%27s_no_accounting_for_taste

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:37 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

Wikipedia Search
EditWatch this pageRead in another language
Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Worthy and unworthy victims

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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:36 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)


*chokes back laughter*

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:36 PM
Author: Coach McGirk

Well, that’s by definition. But even so, what’s the solution here? Some people are just, unfortunately, not cut out for regular intercourse with another human. There are all kind of injustices out there; some can and/or should be corrected but others are a fact of life.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:36 PM
Author: xoxo dungeonmasTTTer

Cast True Sight and find out, hero.

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:36 PM
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Wikipedia Search
EditWatch this pageRead in another language
Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:36 PM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

I actually hope this is real, because it would be hilarious
protip: she did not "get raped." She sucked and fucked a dude 4" taller and 40-50x bigger than you when she was drunk, then told you it was rape so you wouldn't leave her
hth

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:36 PM
Author: biglaw lives matter (retired)



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:36 PM
Author: bumpin that bone thugs \'til i die(askav)


confucius does his crossword with a pen wtf

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:36 PM
Author: Meghan Markle(Address me as "Duchess of Sussex", inferiors)


LOL libs are much nicer than reptiles, who only care about themselves.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:36 PM
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter
Wikipedia Search
EditWatch this pageRead in another language
Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:35 PM
Author: .,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,.(Poster formerly known as MND)


does north korea allow private gun ownership?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:35 PM
Author: cowgod(theimmigrant@live.com)


There's not really proof of it and it always seemed off to me. Doesn't make sense intuitively. It seems more like they're motivated to kill the people who they are killing imho.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:35 PM
Author: LAPD officer on paid administrative leave

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pXZ0XKOwE54

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:35 PM
Author: yosemite sam fuming faggot(ggtp)


Scoscia was keeping him out vs some lefties early in the year but it's become apparent that he's the second best hitter on the team so he'll be in everyday besides before and after starts, or when they are playing in an nl park

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:35 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:34 PM
Author: loans originated on or after July 1, 2018,

So are y'all the tough-guys who represent the fabric of America or perpetual victims?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:34 PM
Author: Jogurt

All the time unless it was something egregious or the media got ahold of it.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:34 PM
Author: Dai, non fa niente

I’m sure they do, but it’s a bit like the pot calling the kettle black

http://www.xoxohth.com/thread.php?thread_id=3776707&mc=40&forum_id=2

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 20th, 2018 8:34 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter
Wikipedia Search
EditWatch this pageRead in another language
Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Wikipedia Search
EditWatch this pageRead in another language
Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:33 PM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


guy who lives in a first world country with one of the lowest gun homicide rates in the world and homicide rates in the world here, sup

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:33 PM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

lol wow nice flame, should've slowplayed it a bit more though

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 20th, 2018 8:33 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)
₩163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents t