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Just matched with a 37 year old white girl. Surprisingly cute. Taking ?s ITT.

Pre-fuck threads are lame yeah yeah I know. Haven't gotten a...
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/07/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
damn bro, this is a new low, at some point it isn't worth it
gay gaping
  06/07/24
not hunting IRL like i did last year bc my crew disbanded ...
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/07/24
I don't know if I can fully communicate to you how creepy ha...
gay gaping
  06/07/24
lol@ this retarded fuck. i fucked more girls in 2023 alone t...
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/07/24
I'm not sure you understand my critique, but in any event I ...
gay gaping
  06/07/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YWdD206eSv0
haunting center
  06/07/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
i never doubted you before but now u claim u went from smash...
Useless Hideous Depressive Point
  06/07/24
...
domesticated house
  06/07/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
...
Very Tactful Supple Dopamine
  06/07/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
lol@ tommy in DISBELIEF im literally the straightest shooter...
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/07/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Makes me believe it more tbh.
swollen razzle idea he suggested crackhouse
  06/07/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
ttiwwop
Sooty Blathering Keepsake Machete Knife
  06/07/24
https://ibb.co/wRFRgCD
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/09/24
Looks like that woman that got the American soldier for stea...
bearded vengeful turdskin
  06/09/24
first thing i asked her is if shes from georgia NOT FLAME LM...
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/09/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Gorgeous girl
irradiated international law enforcement agency
  06/09/24
blonde, blue eyes, skinny at least a 7 by default. face i...
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/09/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
It cannot be overstated how wttiwop
Seedy internal respiration sound barrier
  06/09/24
im literally the only poster in the history of xoxo to post ...
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/09/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
...
Electric field
  06/09/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
she works in gangnam. 180000 https://ibb.co/8MLvCn6
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/09/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
I haven’t been laid since last year either. But I&rsq...
Multi-colored ceo hall
  06/09/24
you should learn to code
Disrespectful gas station
  06/09/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Is it because your wife is also 300lbs or she is skinny and ...
bearded vengeful turdskin
  06/09/24
My wife doesn’t want me and I don’t want myself.
Multi-colored ceo hall
  06/09/24
Do u want her or is she also fat? How could u pay for her if...
bearded vengeful turdskin
  06/09/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
1800000
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/09/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Why would any normal white woman go to Gookistan?
Claret State Reading Party
  06/09/24
cumskins TRIGGERED
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/09/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Vagismus
bisexual big office friendly grandma
  06/09/24
white girl sucking on big korean cock FOREVER
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/09/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Check out the story of Gordon black. Some woman that wouldn'...
bearded vengeful turdskin
  06/09/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
calling her after work tonight to voice confirm. seems dtf
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Conscription in South Korea 10 languages Article Talk ...
fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry
  06/10/24
Lmao
Claret State Reading Party
  06/11/24
we phoned last night unnnngghhhh DAT BRIT ACCENT
copper comical crotch legal warrant
  06/11/24


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Reply Favorite

Date: June 7th, 2024 2:05 AM
Author: copper comical crotch legal warrant

Pre-fuck threads are lame yeah yeah I know. Haven't gotten any action since last year - longest dry spell since I lost my vcard LMAO - so I'm actually pretty excited about this prospect.

167cm according to profile, white, blonde, blue eyes.

Hope I smash.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47726225)



Reply Favorite

Date: June 10th, 2024 11:00 PM
Author: fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry

Conscription in South Korea

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience. Please help by spinning off or relocating any relevant information, and removing excessive detail that may be against Wikipedia's inclusion policy. (August 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

Related concepts

Alternative civilian serviceCivil conscriptionConscientious objectorConscription crisisCounter-recruitmentDraft-card burningDraft evasionImpressmentMilitary serviceNational serviceWar resister

By historical country

Ottoman EmpireRussian EmpireSoviet Union

By modern country

AustraliaAzerbaijanBermudaBrazilCanadaChinaCongo-Kinshasa (child soldiers)CubaCyprus (reduction)DenmarkEgyptEritreaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceIsraelIranNorth KoreaSouth KoreaLatviaLithuaniaMyanmarthe NetherlandsNew ZealandNorwayMexicoMonacothe PhilippinesRussiaSerbiaSingaporeSouth AfricaSri LankaSwedenSwitzerlandTaiwanTurkeyUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUkraineVietnam

By geographical area

Ireland

vte

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47736097)



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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:00 PM
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Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:00 PM
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Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47736100)



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(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47726236)



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(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47726240)



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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:01 PM
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Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

Related concepts

Alternative civilian serviceCivil conscriptionConscientious objectorConscription crisisCounter-recruitmentDraft-card burningDraft evasionImpressmentMilitary serviceNational serviceWar resister

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

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Date: June 7th, 2024 3:39 AM
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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:00 PM
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Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

Related concepts

Alternative civilian serviceCivil conscriptionConscientious objectorConscription crisisCounter-recruitmentDraft-card burningDraft evasionImpressmentMilitary serviceNational serviceWar resister

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:00 PM
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Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

Related concepts

Alternative civilian serviceCivil conscriptionConscientious objectorConscription crisisCounter-recruitmentDraft-card burningDraft evasionImpressmentMilitary serviceNational serviceWar resister

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47736104)



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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:00 PM
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Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47736103)



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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:00 PM
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Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47736101)



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Date: June 7th, 2024 3:51 AM
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i never doubted you before but now u claim u went from smashing 500 pussies a year to being on a dry spell for this entire year

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Date: June 7th, 2024 3:58 AM
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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:01 PM
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Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

Related concepts

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

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Date: June 7th, 2024 4:04 AM
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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:01 PM
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Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

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Date: June 7th, 2024 4:23 AM
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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:01 PM
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Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

Related concepts

Alternative civilian serviceCivil conscriptionConscientious objectorConscription crisisCounter-recruitmentDraft-card burningDraft evasionImpressmentMilitary serviceNational serviceWar resister

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47736113)



Reply Favorite

Date: June 7th, 2024 4:43 AM
Author: swollen razzle idea he suggested crackhouse

Makes me believe it more tbh.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47726269)



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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:02 PM
Author: fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry

Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

Related concepts

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47736114)



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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:01 PM
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Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

Related concepts

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47736108)



Reply Favorite

Date: June 7th, 2024 5:03 AM
Author: Sooty Blathering Keepsake Machete Knife

ttiwwop

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47726285)



Reply Favorite

Date: June 9th, 2024 6:50 PM
Author: copper comical crotch legal warrant

https://ibb.co/wRFRgCD

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47732788)



Reply Favorite

Date: June 9th, 2024 6:54 PM
Author: bearded vengeful turdskin

Looks like that woman that got the American soldier for stealing in vladivostok

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47732795)



Reply Favorite

Date: June 9th, 2024 7:02 PM
Author: copper comical crotch legal warrant

first thing i asked her is if shes from georgia NOT FLAME LMAO

british, actually

lmao@ me pursuing 37 yr old anglo shrews

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47732818)



Reply Favorite

Date: June 10th, 2024 11:02 PM
Author: fiercely-loyal well-lubricated church building dingle berry

Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

Related concepts

Alternative civilian serviceCivil conscriptionConscientious objectorConscription crisisCounter-recruitmentDraft-card burningDraft evasionImpressmentMilitary serviceNational serviceWar resister

By historical country

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1980 to 1983

College attending or more

 Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

 Grade B-III: Supplementary service

High school Graduated or less

 Grade A: Active duty

 Grade B-I, II, III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1984

In 1984, Change of Physical Grade Name.

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

A 갑종 I 1급

B-I 제1을종 II 2급

B-II 제2을종 III 3급

B-III 제3을종 IV 4급

C 병종 V 5급

D 정종 VI 6급

E 무종 VII 7급

College attending or more

 Grade I, II, III: Active duty

 Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Graduated

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1985

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1986

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1987

High school Graduated or more

 Grade I, II: Active duty

 Grade III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less

 Grade I: Active duty

 Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1988 to 1991

1988: Skipped Conscription Examination of Elementary school Graduated or less

1989: Those aged 25 or older among those graduating from High school will be converted to Supplementary service.

June 1, 1991: High school graduates who are 162 centimeters or less, high school graduates and those who are above university students, and who are Grade II (and III, IV) due to myopia of ophthalmology, will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1990)

November 15, 1991: Those who graduated from high school and a Physical grade II will be converted to Supplementary service. (A person who was Conscription examined from 1991)

January 1, 1992: Middle school Dropout or less is Supplementary service. (Exemption from Call of Bangwi)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1992

Middle school Graduated or more, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty. But, on October 30 of the same year, it was changed as follows:

High school Graduated or more, Physical grade III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

High school Dropout or less, Physical grade I, II, III, IV: converted to Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1993

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout and Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1994

High school Graduated or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

High school Dropout

Grade I: Active duty

Grade II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated with Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1995 to 1996

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Those who graduated from middle school and a Physical grade I, II, III, IV will be converted to Supplementary service from 1996

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1997

High school Dropout or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout with Physical grade III: converted to Supplementary service from June 2, 1997

High school Dropout with Physical grade II: converted to Supplementary service from January 1, 1998

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1998 to 2003

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated, High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

1999 to 2011

Skipped Conscription Examination with Transferred the 2nd Citizen service of Middle school Dropout or less in 1999 to 2011

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2004

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2005

College attending or more with Grade I, II, III, IV: Active duty

Middle school Graduated and High school Dropout

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2006 to 2011

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

2012 to 1st half of 2015

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade I, II, III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less with Physical Grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(in Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2014(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2014-2)

2nd half of 2015 to 2020

High school Graduated or more

Grade I, II and III: Active duty

Grade IV: Supplementary service

High school Dropout of less with Physical grade I, II, III, IV: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout or less Supplementary service

External links

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2016(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2016-3)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2017(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2017-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2018(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2018-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2019(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2019-1)

(Korean) Public Notice of Draft examination in 2020(Military Manpower Administration Public Notice No. 2020-1)

Service types and length

Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4: those are suitable for military service (현역)

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[26] Active duty soldiers serve 1 year 6 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 1 year 8 months in the Navy, or 1 year 9 months in the Air Force.[27] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend 3 days of annual military training for 6 years[citation needed] (5 years from 2021).

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 1 year 9 months for social work personnel (better known as public service workers - personnel ordered to do public service work at places that require auxiliary workers such as local community centers like city halls, government agencies, and public facilities like subway stations);[28] 2 years 10 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 3 years for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[29]

In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[30] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[31]

Grade 4: those are unsuitable for military service (보충역)

Art and sports personnel (예술체육요원)

Artists and players who have won government accredited competitions are allowed to work as 'Art and Sports Personnel (예술체육요원 [ko])'. After a month of military training, Art and Sports Service agents work through their specialties to finish their military services; e.g. in professional sports teams, art galleries, museums or orchestra bands. Unlike other service agents who are working at factories, farms, universities, institutes or nursing homes, Art and Sports Service agents are allowed to work abroad.[citation needed]

Former president Park Chung-hee introduced exemptions for athletes in 1973 in an effort to win more medals for the country; some historians believe this also served as a distraction against the government's unpopularity.[32] After winning a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics, wrestler Yang Jung-mo was granted the first exemption. In the 1980s, president Chun Doo-hwan promised exemptions to any athlete who won a medal of any kind at either the 1986 Asian Games or the 1988 Summer Olympics.[32]

When South Korea co-hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2002, their national football team was guaranteed an exemption if they reached the round of 16; the same promise was made to the national baseball team in 2006 if they reached the semifinals of the World Baseball Classic. Public outrage ensued, and similar exemptions have been rarely granted since.[32]

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[33] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 42 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[34]

The policy has resulted in coaches being accused of selecting players desperate to avoid military service instead of choosing the best athletes. Parents encourage their children to pursue sports in hopes of them receiving an exemption.[32]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning men's football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[35][36] 2008 Olympic gold medalist badminton player Lee Yong-dae,[37] swimmer Park Tae-hwan,[38][39] 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Chung Hyeon,[40] 2018 Asian Games gold medalist footballer Son Heung-min, and 2018 Asian Games gold medalist baseball player Lee Jung-hoo.

Esports players were not exempt from conscription until 2023, when esports became a regular event at the 2022 Asian Games.[41][failed verification] Because esports had become a medal event in these games, it became possible for players to be exempt from conscription, so long as they won a gold medal in the games. The gold medal-winning roster of the country's national esports team became the first players to be granted the exemption.[42]

A total of 220 exemptions were granted from 2008 to 2018.[32]

Exemptions are also granted to classical musicians and ballet performers who win first place in stipulated international-level competitions. A two-year extension for notable K-pop artists (from a law that was passed in December 2020) could also be given by government for their career, the age for joining military is 30 (which previously was 28). Some resources and media outlets claim that the primary reason for this amendment was singer-songwriter Jin, who, at the time, was about to turn 28.[43][44] As his group BTS has had a huge impact (especially in the music industry) worldwide and contributed greatly to the spread of Korean culture and the Hallyu Wave, exemptions for them were in talks for a few years.[45][46] Despite this, BTS' record label, Big Hit Music, announced on October 17, 2022, that Jin withdrew his enlistment deferral request and will be the first in the group to enter into mandatory military service, with other members of BTS to be enlisted on a later date.[47]

Conscientious objection

The right to conscientious objection was not recognized in South Korea until recently. Over 400 men were typically imprisoned at any given time for refusing military service for political or religious reasons in the years before right to conscientious objection was established.[48]

On 28 June 2018, the South Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Military Service Act unconstitutional and ordered the government to accommodate civilian forms of military service for conscientious objectors.[49] Later that year on 1 November 2018, the South Korean Supreme Court legalized conscientious objection as a basis for rejecting compulsory military service.[50]

Salary and benefits

Salary per month in 2017[51]

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

₩176,400

₩195,500

₩216,000

Salary per month in 2018

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2019

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩306,100

₩331,300

₩366,200

₩405,700

Salary per month in 2020

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩408,100

₩441,700

₩488,200

₩540,900

Salary per month in 2021

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩459,100

₩496,900

₩549,200

₩608,500

Salary per month in 2022

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩510,100

₩552,100

₩610,200

₩676,100

Salary per month in 2023

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩600,000

₩680,000

₩800,000

₩1,000,000

Equipment

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[52]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[53]

Dual citizens

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before 31 March of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service[54] and, for those who wish to maintain their multiple citizenships, an oath not to exert foreign nationality within two years since finishing their military service.[55] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a South Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

There have been cases of Koreans abroad (e.g. Korean Americans) being forced to serve in the military, as they were unaware they were actually citizens of South Korea. This happens when these people visit South Korea. One cause of this is the inadvertent inclusion on the family register.[56]

Racial minorities

In 2011, the government dropped race-based requirements for mix-raced Korean nationals conscripted into the armed forces.[57] However, there currently is no law allowing non-ethnic Korean citizens conscription into the armed forces. All naturalized citizens and citizens not of partial Korean ethnicity have a choice of whether to enlist or not.

Controversies

Violation of Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention explicitly excludes "any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character" from its scope.[58] However, ILO defines conscription of non-military purpose as forced labour.[59]

According to ILO, South Korean conscription violates the forced labour convention, because South Korea enrolls men with disabilities for non-military purposes. A majority (+90%) of the "Reserve - class 4 -" group work as "social service agents (사회복무요원)", and earn far less than the minimum legal wage at various fields, including government offices, subway stations, tax offices, post offices, and sanitaria.[58]

In April 2021, South Korea ratified the Forced Labour Convention, but conscription remained in place. South Korea changed its conscription law by providing "right to decide to be enrolled" to "reserve - class 4 -. those with minor disabilities". South Korea claims that this change makes the conscription legitimate because "reserve - class 4" now have the right to decide their methods of conscription between soldiers with active duty and "social service agents".[58] However, ILO continues to argue that enforcing "reserve - class 4-" to work as a "social service agent" is a violation of the Forced Labour Convention.[58]

Hazing

Main article: Hazing in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Lowering standards of acceptance

In recent years, the South Korean government is preparing a policy to lower conscription standards for mental and physical conditions that would previously be considered exempt, as it fears that the nation's low birthrate will lead to fewer conscripts. In 2021, South Korea had the lowest fertility rate in the world, a title also bestowed on the country the previous year.[60] However, experts warn that such actions will lead to wider problems already present in the military, by recruiting personnel who would not be able to adapt to the closed military.[61]

Draft evasion

In general, the South Korean public tends to be intolerant towards men who attempt to evade mandatory military service or receive special treatment, especially if they are exploiting family wealth or political connections. Draft evasion is a punishable crime, but many entertainers, athletes, politicians and their children are known to have fabricated medical or other reasons to seek exemption from military service.[62][63] According to a 2017 report by the Military Manpower Administration, the most common evasion tactic was extreme weight loss or gain (37%), followed by fabrication of mental illness (23.7%), and deliberate full-body tattoos (20.3%).[64] Studying abroad or migrating overseas to obtain foreign citizenship are considered the preferred option for sons in wealthy families, while nearly a hundred high-ranking politicians including sitting members of the National Assembly have managed to arrange unexplained exemptions for their sons.[65] These cases of draft evasion are to be distinguished from conscientious objection on political or religious grounds.

Yoo Seung-jun (Steve Yoo)

In 2002, just before South Korean pop singer Yoo Seung-jun was due to be drafted for his military service, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. He had already obtained U.S. permanent residency and, in order to evade military service, went to LA, where he acquired citizenship within two months, subsequently renouncing his Korean nationality. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[66] In February 2017, Yoo lost his second and final appeal regarding his entry ban which prohibited him from entry and any further appeals.[67] However, citing procedural irregularities, the South Korean Supreme Court re-opened the case in July 2019 and sent the case to the Seoul High Court, ordering them to retry Yoo's case.[68] In November 2019, the appeals court reversed the ban, paving the way for Yoo to return to the country, pending approval of a visa.[69] One of Yoo's visa requests was denied in July 2020 by the Los Angeles Consulate, citing Korean law that allows discretion in denying visas to applicants that "posed a threat to public interest."[70]

See also

flag South Korea portal

Forced Labour Convention

Supplementary service in South Korea

Social service agent

Conscription in North Korea

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=5537784&forum_id=2#47736119)



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Date: June 10th, 2024 11:02 PM
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Conscription in South Korea

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First conscription examination conducted on 16 December 1949 after liberation from Japan's colonial rule

Conscription

1780 caricature of a press gang

1780 caricature of a press gang

Related concepts

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Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but they may voluntarily join the military.[3]

South Korean soldiers in training

Establishment

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on 17 July 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5]

In addition, the conscription is defined and acted by the "Military Service Act" (병역법).[6][7] According to the "Military Service Act" Article 3, "Every male the Republic of Korea shall faithfully perform mandatory military service, as prescribed by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and this Act. A female may perform only active service or reserve service through volunteering" and "Except as provided in this Act, no special case concerning mandatory military service shall be prescribed". Only males being drafted was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of Korea, which declared in 2006 that it is the right of government to decide whoever is subject of the conscription, and hence there is no constitutional error of government decisions.[8] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[9]

Enlistment and impairment-disability evaluation

By law, when a South Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[10][11] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo an Impairment & Disability evaluation to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the evaluation's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[12] Men must enlist by the time they turn 28.[13]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform actively in army." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is not so healthy for active training but capable of doing supplemental service for civilians as replacements

(This is a common grade for people with minor disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service

(This is a common grade for people with disabilities)."

"To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence

(This is a common grade for people with severe disabilities)."

"To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Term of South Korea military service

Areas Notation of military service relevant regulation Commonly used terms Meaning

English Korean English Korean

Conscription examination Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사

징병검사

징병신체검사 Conscription Examination

Military Service Judgment Examination

Physical Examination(PE) 징병검사

병역판정검사

신체검사(신검)

Physical Grade 신체등급

신체등위 Physical Grade 신체등급

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Grade V

Grade VI

Grade VII 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급 Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7 1급

2급

3급

4급

5급

6급

7급

- 갑종

제1을종

제2을종

제3을종

병종

정종

무종 Grade A

Grade B-1

Grade B-2

Grade B-3

Grade C

Grade D

Grade E 갑종

1을종

2을종

3을종

병종

정종

무종 Physical grades names from Before 1984

- Disposition for military service

- Type of service Preliminary Military Service

First militia Service

First Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역 Preliminary Military Service

1st Citizen Service 병역준비역

제1국민역

Active Service 현역 Active 현역

Reserve Service 예비역 Reserve Service 예비역

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역 Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Supplementary Service

Supplemental Service

Recruit Service 보충역 Supplementary Service 보충역

Wartime labor service

Second militia Service

Second Citizen Service 전시근로역

제2국민역 Exemption from Military Service in Ordinary time

Exemption from Ordinary time 평시병역면제

평시면제

Exemption from Military service 병역면제 Exemption from All Military Service

All exemption 병역완전면제

완전면제

Removal from Military Register 병역제적 Exemption from All Military Service by Criminal record

All exemption from Criminal record 전과에 의한 병역완전면제

전과에 의한 완전면제

전과로 병역완전면제

전과로 완전면제 In the case of being sentenced to more than 6 years in prison under the ROK Military service act, it was Removal from Military service registration.[14]

Disposition for subject to active duty, service, etc. Enlisted in Active Service 현역입영대상 Active duty

Subject to Enlist

Subject to Conscription

Subject to Draft 현역대상

현역입영대상

징병대상

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상 Subject to Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Disposition for subject to supplementary service callup, service, etc. Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Called for Defense 방위소집대상 Defense Call-up(Defense soldier call-up) is classified as a supplementary service from 1969 to 1994. It was in the form of commuting from home to Military unit(or Police station, Police box, Conscription part of Town office).

- 방위병 Defense Soldier 방위병

Called for Public Interest Service 공익근무요원소집대상 Called for Public Service 공익복무요원 소집대상

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상 Called for Social Service 사회복무요원 소집대상

Public interest service Personnel 공익근무요원 Social Service Personnel 공익근무요원

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원 Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

Certificate of Military Registration

Certificate of Military Registration data notation[15][16]

English Korean

Name Hong Gil-dong 홍 길동

Kim Han-guk 김 한국

Birth date 12 Mar. 1979 790312

28 Mar. 2001 2001. 3.28

Physical grade Grade I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7급

Draft Physical Examination Omitted 병역판정검사생략

Disposition for military service Preliminary Military Service 병역준비역

Subject to Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사대상

Active Service 현역

Enlisted in Active Service 현역병입영대상

Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역

Called for Full-Time Reserve Service 상근예비역소집대상

Supplementary Service 보충역

Called for Social Service 사회복무요원소집대상

Alternative Service 대체역

Called for alternative service 대체복무요원소집대상

Reserve Service 예비역

Subject to Follow-up Physical Examination 재신체검사대상

Wartime Labor Service 전시근로역

Exemption from Military Service 병역면제

Removal from Military Register 병적제적(6년이상수형)

Reason of disposition An only son 독자

Wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

(Family member) wounded in action or injured in the line of duty (가족)전·공상

Difficulties in Earning a Livelihood 생계유지곤란

Not Completing Middle School 중학교 중퇴이하

Long-term Waiting 장기대기

Emigration 국외이주(이민)

Acquisition of the Permanent Residence Right 영주권취득

Loss of nationality 국적상실

Thirty-one years of age or older 31세이상

Thirty-six years of age or older 36세이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for one year or longer 7급1년이상

Remaining in Physical Grade VII for two year or longer 7급2년이상

Naturalization 귀화

Multiracial child 혼혈아

Serving a sentence 수형

Child born out of wedlock 혼인외 출생자

Excluded from the Public 제외

Immigrated from the North of the Military Demarcation Line 군사분계선 이북지역에서 이주

Boot camp Army Recruit Training Center 육군 훈련소

OO Replacement Center OO 보충대

OO Division OO 사단

Draft examination Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Studying Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(유학)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Seafarer) 병역판정검사연기(선원)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Residing Abroad) 병역판정검사연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (Emigration) 병역판정검사연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Draft Physical Examination (In Prison) 병역판정검사연기(재감)

Evasion of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사 기피

Enlist of active Postponement of Conscription (Student) 입영연기(재학생)

Postponement of Conscription (Studying Abroad) 입영연기(유학)

Postponement of Conscription (Residing Abroad) 입영연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Conscription (Emigration) 입영연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Conscription (Training in Research Institute) 입영연기(연수)

Postponement of Conscription (Outstanding Athlete) 입영연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Conscription Date 입영일자 연기

Homecoming after Conscription 입영후 귀가

Subject to Notice of Re-Conscription 재입영통지대상

Domestic Reason 가사사정

Employed Abroad 국외취업

Residing in an Unreclaimed Area 미수복지구거주

Application for Military Service 군 지원

Evasion of Conscription 입영기피

Missing 행방불명

(Medical/Judicial/Religious) Officer/Cadet Officer (의무/법무/군종)장교/사관후보생

Basic Branch Officer 기본병과장교

Noncommissioned Cadet Officer 부사관 후보생

Enlistment in OO OO 편입

Removed from OO OO 제적

Call of supplementary service, etc. Postponement of Call (Student) 소집연기(재학생)

Postponement of Call (Studying Abroad) 소집연기(유학)

Postponement of Call (Seafarer) 소집연기(선원)

Postponement of Call (Residing Abroad) 소집연기(국외거주)

Postponement of Call (Emigration) 소집연기(국외이주)

Postponement of Call (Training in Research Institute) 소집연기(연수)

Postponement of Call (Outstanding Athlete) 소집연기(우수연수)

Postponement of Call Date 소집일자연기

Exemption from Call 소집면제

Evasion from Call 소집기피

Enlistment in OO (산업요원등)편입

Cancellation of Enlistment in OO OO 편입취소

Advance Service 선복무

Social Service Personnel 사회복무요원

International Cooperation Service Personnel 국제협력봉사요원

Art and Sports Personnel 예술체육요원

Expert Research Personnel 전문연구요원

Industrial Technical Personnel 산업기능요원

International Cooperative Doctor 국제협력의사

Public-Service Advocate 공익법무관

Public Health Doctor 공중보건의사

Doctor Exclusively in Charge of Draft Physical Examination 병역판정검사전담의사

Onboard Ship Reserve Service 승선근무예비역

Alternative Service Personnel 대체복무요원

Others Ban on foreign travel (a person who has stayed in the country for one year or longer) 출국금지(1년이상 국내체재)

Removal of the ban on foreign travel (others)

Jehovah's Witnesses 여호와의 증인

Departure before age 24 24세이전출국

Period of Mandatory Service 의무복무기간

Exclusion from the Military Service 군복무 제외기간

Short-term overseas travel 단기여행

Illegal stay in a foreign country 국외불법체재

Violation of duty to obtain permission for overseas travel 국외여행허가의무위반

Forces Army 육군

Navy 해군

Air Force 공군

Marine, Subordinate to ROK Navy 해병대

Expiration date Indefinite 무기한

6 Months 6월

Type of service Reserve Service 예비역

Recruit Service 보충역

Exemption from the Service 면역

Retirement from the Service 퇴역

Removal from Military Register 병적제적

Discharge Discharge from Military Service 전역

Discharge from Military Service by Application 원에 의한 전역

Forced Discharge from Military Service 원에 의하지 아니한 전역

Home on Leave from Military Service 귀휴전역

Discharge from Military Service as Woman 여군전역

Completion of Service 복무만료

Completion of Service(Release from Call) 복무만료(소집해제)

Completion of Military Service 만기

Age Limit 연령정년

Disease 의병

Domestic Reason 가사사정(의가사)

Difficulties in Maintaining Household 생계곤란

An only son 독자

wounded in action or injured in the line of duty 전·공상

Emigration 국외이주

Disqualification 신분상실

Exclusion to the Public 제외

Secession from Military Service 군복무이탈(삭제)

Removal from the Army Register 군 제적

Self-Surrender 자수신고

National Land Construction Corps 국토건설단

Volunteer Soldier as a Student 학도의용군

Military Service Act 병역법

Enforcement Decree of Military Service Act 병역법시행령

Detailed Enforcement Regulation of Military Service Act 병역법 시행규칙

Combatant police, etc. Combatant Police Officer 전투경찰

Auxiliary Police Officer 의무경찰

Obligatory Fireman 의무소방

Coast Guard 해양경찰

Correctional Guard 경비교도

Military service age

The age standard is from January 1 to December 31 of the year of age.

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service

■: Age group of Mandatory Military service in Wartime

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service Note

17 or younger Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration(Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment possible.

- Assignment the Preliminary Military Service.

- Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.Note 1

1.Age group subject to Civil Defense Corps under the Framework Act on Civil Defense from the age of 20[17]

2.Subject to a return order from the chief of staff of each military if he desertied while serving on the basis of active duty soldiers.

3.Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers in the Age group of Exemption from Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc.(38 to 40 years old, 38 to 45 years old in Wartime) can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a wartime basis.[18]

19 to 35 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up(Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination.(Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service(Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

36 to 37 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime(Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2 Reserve soldiers and Completed their service Supplementary soldiers can be assigned to the Reserve Force according to the Reserve Forces Act on a Wartime basis.

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2 Expanded 50 years of age for the Wartime Civil Defense Corps

Note 1: Some disabled person (mild disabled person). If the disability status of a disabled person changes at the age of 19, or if a reason for the return of the disabled registration card occurs, a Conscription Examination shall be performed.

Note 2:

Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldier (Byeong) ranks

English Korean

Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps

Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant 병장

Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman Corporal 상등병

Private First Class Seaman Airman First Class Lance Corporal 일등병

Private Second Class Seaman Apprentice Airman Private Second Class 이등병

Note 3: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank from Military Personnel Management Act.[19]

History of military service age

1971 to 1984

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger - None. -

18 to 19 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

20 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)Note 1

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote 2

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote 2

Note 1: According to Article 7 of the Military Service Act Addenda in 1971, Military Service Act Violators(Conscription examination or Enlist refusers/dodgers) as of the enforcement year(1971) are obligated to Conscription examination and enlist.[20]

Note 2: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1984 to 1993

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. No, But Possible the Voluntary enlist.

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime not enlisted from 1st Citizen Service

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.Those who are not Active (Serving), Reserve, or Supplementary Service are the 1st Citizen service.

3.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to Reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, All Military Service Obligators (Including those Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc.) are no Conscription examination, Enlist, Supplementary Service Call-up (Exemption from Call)

2.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty. 1.Same as above.

2.The 1st Citizen service that has not been Conscription examination and those Subject to Active Enlist (Subject to draft) who have not been notified of Active draft are transferred to Supplementary service.

36 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examantion and Enlist.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, 2nd Citizen Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

1994 to 2010

Age Mandatory military service Duty of conscription examination and enlist, etc. Type of service

17 or younger a 17-year-old person (17-year-old male) must report the incorporation of the 1st Citizen service to the Town mayor or Village Chief. (Before February 5, 1999)

Military Manpower Administration takes over the Identity registration data of persons (17-year-old male) who are enrollment to Military Service Registration (Assignment the Preliminary Military Service) in the following year from the Ministry of the Interior, and transmits them to the Local Military Manpower Office. (After February 5, 1999)

18 Subject for Mandatory Military service of Peacetime No, but voluntary enlistment is possible. Assignment the 1st Citizen Service.

Persons with disabilities registered under the Disabled registration system is Wartime Labor Service or Exemption from Military Service.

19 to 30 All Military service obligators are obligated to Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up (Passed person from Conscription examination. Active duty is Enlist, Supplementary Service is Call-up) 1.According to the results of the Conscription examination. (Military Disposition. Active duty, Supplementary service, Wartime labor service or Exempted from Military service)

2.When the Mandatory service (Active service) period is completed, they are transferred to reserve service.

31 to 35 1.In the peacetime, General Military service obligators are no Conscription examination and Enlist/Call-up

2.In the peacetime, Military Service Act Violators, Oversea stayer, etc. are obligated to Conscription examination. When disposed of as a Supplementary service, there is an Obligation to convene Public service.

3.In the wartime, All Military service obligators are obligated to enlist as conscription examination and active duty.

1.Same as above.

2.Military Service Act Violators, Overseas stayer, etc. are Subject to Supplementary service, Wartime Labor Service or Exempted from Military service according to the results of the Conscription examination.

38 to 40 In any case, No duty of Conscription Examination and Enlist. Same as above.

41 to 45 1.End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime (Soldier ranks)

2.Extension of Mandatory Military service from Wartime Exemption from Service for Active Soldiers, Reserve Soldiers, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in PeacetimeNote

46 or older End of Mandatory Military service from Peacetime and Wartime. Exemption from Service for Active, Reserve, Supplementary Soldiers, Wartime Labor Service in Peacetime and WartimeNote

Note: Retirement of Officers, Warrant officers, and Noncommissioned officers when they reach retirement age of rank.

Determination criteria of physical grades

There are seven physical grades. Grade name is I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. Before 1984 grades name is A, B (respectively B-I, B-II, B-III), C, D and E

Before 1984 After 1984

Name Korean Name Korean

Grade A 갑종 Grade I 1급

Grade B-I 제1을종 Grade II 2급

Grade B-II 제2을종 Grade III 3급

Grade B-III 제3을종 Grade IV 4급

Grade C 병종 Grade V 5급

Grade D 정종 Grade VI 6급

Grade E 무종 Grade VII 7급

I, II, III and IV is Accepted, and grades V, VI and VII is Rejected.

The criteria for determining the physical grade shall be in accordance with Attached form 2 and 3 of the "Rules for examination of Conscription Physical Examination, etc.(병역판정 신체검사 등 검사규칙 [ko])" Attached form 2 sets the criteria for determining height and weight. Attached form 3 is the evaluation criteria for diseases and mental and physical disabilities, which vary from year to year.

In the following criteria, diseases and mental and physical disabilities are described mainly as representative or known.

Physical grades Accepted or Rejected Standards[21] Type of military service[22]

I Accepted Physical and Psychological constitution is healthy, and can serve in active duty or supplementary service.

Active duty, Supplementary service, and Wartime labor service based on Qualifications (Educational background, Age, etc.)

2

3

4

5 Rejected Those incapable of entering active or supplementary service, but capable of entering the wartime labor service Wartime labor service

6 Those incapable of performing military service due to disease or mental or physical disorder Exempted from Military service

7 In the case where grades I, II, III, IV, V, VI cannot be received due to Disease or Mental and Physical disability Subject to Rephysical examination

Physical grade Height (centimeters), weight (BMI) Disease or disabled

I

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI20.0~24.9

A completely healthy person without illness or physical disability

Those in good condition after treatment of acute infectious diseases

II

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI18.5~19.9・BMI25.0~29.9

Allergic rhinitis

III

Height 159~160 cm:BMI16.0~34.9

Height 161~203.9 cm:BMI16.0~18.4, BMI30.0~34.9

Hepatitis B carrier

Conservative treated or Operated PneumothoraxNote 1

Mental disease

Minor, Mild Depression

Minor, Mild Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Several Developmental Disability (ADHD, Learning Disability)

IV

Height 146~158 cm

Height 159~203.9 cm: Below BMI16.0 and BMI35.0 or Over

Height 204 cm or Over

Case of endoscopic surgery with either Early gastric cancer, Early colorectal cancer, or Carcinoid

Prodrome of Skin malignant tumor(Giant acromegaly condyloma, Bowen disease), Basal cell carcinoma

Mental disease

Borderline intellectual functioning

Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

V

Height 140.1~145 cm

Mental disease

Schizophrenia

Gender dysphoria

Mild Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability (High-functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, PDD-NOS without Intellectual Disability)

VI

Height 140 cm or Below

Malignant tumor (Cancer)

Metastasized skin cancer

Bone cancer

HIV carrier

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mental disease

Schizophrenia with Personality devastated

Moderate, Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

Autism Spectrum Disorder with Intellectual Disability (Low-functioning autism, Childhood disintegrative disorder)

VII

Note 1: Surgery due to pneumothorax is Grade V in 1992.

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade

According to Article 14 of the Military Service Act, grades I to IV are based on qualifications (education, age, etc.) and are subject to active service, supplementary, wartime workers, Grade V exemptions, Grade VI exemptions, and Grade VII medical examinations. The criteria for disposing of active duty or supplementary officers in grades I to IV are determined by the Military Manpower Administration's announcement (annual announcement of conscription inspection). According to the announcement, the criteria for military service are as follows.

■: Active duty (현역, Subject to Enlist for Active duty. Subject to Draft)

■: Supplementary service (보충역)

■:Wartime labor service (전시근로역)[23]

■: Exempted from Military service (병역면제)

■: Subject to Physical Reexamination (재검사대상)

Disposition for military service by educational background and physical grade (after 2021)

Educational background Physical grade

I II III IV V VI VII

Regardless Active duty Supplementary service Wartime Labor Service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

History of disposition for military service

1950s to 1969

Before the 1970s, the criteria for disposition of active duty and supplementary military service cannot be confirmed due to lack of data at the time.[24]

in 1950 to 1955

1950: It was the first year in the Republic of Korea that the Conscription was implemented. At that year, due to the limitation of 100,000 troops by the Korean military, the conscription system and Conscription Examination were suspended. However, in June of the same year, when the Korean War broke out, there was an unofficial conscription.

1952: As the Conscription system was Implemented again, Conscription Examination began again.

Educational

background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1956

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1957

The supplementary military service was abolished by the enforcement of the revised Military Service Act from August 1957.[25]

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted

(Active duty, 1st Supplementary military service, 2nd Supplementary military service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1958 to 1960

On February 24, 1958, there were Re-examination measures after canceling the judgment on 45,000 Grade C judges in the 1950 to 1957 Conscription examination.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1961

There was a physical examination of public officials who were judged to be Grade C.

In 1961, there was a physical examination of 128,422 embroidered persons who reported between June 21 and June 30, which was set as the period for reporting embroidery of those who failed to serve in the military.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1962

Those born on or after January 1, 1930, who have been punished for active service under the Military Service Act enacted before October 1, 1962, and who have not joined the army, will be transferred to the 1st supplementary role and will be supplemented. (Except for those who joined the National Land Construction Team(국토건설단 [ko]) in 1961.)

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III B-IV B-V C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty)

(After Oct, 1st 1962, Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

1963 to 1969

Among those who were examined for conscription in 1962, those who were judged to be Grade B4 and B5 were transferred to Grade C and converted to 2nd Citizen service.

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

Regardless Accepted (Active duty, 1st Supplementary service, 2nd Supplementary service) 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

After 1970s

1970

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1971

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1972

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less Active duty Supplementary service

1973

Middle school Graduated or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated

High school Dropout

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1974 to 1976

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II: Active duty

Grade B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Graduated or more, High school Dropout or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated or more, Middle school Dropout or less

Grade A: Active duty

Grade B-I, B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty Supplementary service 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary service

High school Graduated

Middle school Graduated

Middle school Dropout Active duty Supplementary service

Elementary school Graduated

Elementary school Dropout or less 2nd Citizen service

1977 to 1979

College attending or more

Grade A, B-I, B-II, B-III: Active duty

High school Graduated or less

Grade A, B-I: Active duty

Grade B-II, B-III: Supplementary service

Middle school Dropout or less: 2nd Citizen service

Educational background Physical grade

A B-I B-II B-III C D E

College attending or more Active duty 2nd Citizen service Exempted from Military service Subject to Physical reexamination

High school Graduated Active duty Supplementary